Category Archives: printing house / publisher

research visit to Cambridge University Library

In the coming week I will be practically ‘living’  in the manuscript reading room of Cambridge University Library. For this leg of the research project, the archives of the British and Foreign Bible Society will be investigated in search of contextual information on Bible translations that were printed in the Mongolian script.

Not only will original copies of these publications and the utilized Mongolian printing types be studied, also the correspondence of the translators, typesetters and printers, the minutes and reports of the Bible societies and other involved participants will be examined.

The next couple of days will take me back to the early nineteenth century, into the then undiscovered regions of Siberia.

Twentieth anniversary Khumuun Bichig newspaper

Today marks the twentieth anniversary of Khumuun Bichig, the Mongolian newspaper from the Montsame Mongolian National News Agency in Ulaanbaatar.

From the first day of its publication, on 10 May 1992, the four pages of Khumuun Bichig were set entirely in the Mongolian script and distributed throughout the country. In 2010, Khumuun Bichig‘s circulation reached 127 535 copies.

Over the past twenty years Khumuun Bichig was restyled a couple of times, but remained to be an invaluable historical and educational document that continued to support Mongolian writing and calligraphy by collaborating with renowned calligraphers and Mongolian script educators, by reporting on various events and publications about Mongolian writing, and by organizing annual calligraphy competitions. It became an indirect teaching resource by providing a learning environment to anyone interested in the Mongolian script.

On 22 August 2011, I had the privilege to visit the offices of Khumuun Bichig in Ulaanbaatar and to interview Altantsetseg Sampil, director and editor-in-chief of the newspaper. Miss Sampil showed several original copies of Khumuun Bichig from various periods, illustrating the different formats and layouts of the publication. She also introduced me to Bayarbat Khandmaa and Elbeg Andarzara, the two current editors and typesetter-designers of the contemporary digital edition. The entire interview was audio-recorded and a detailed paper on the meeting and history of Khumuun Bichig is being prepared.

At present, Khumuun Bichig is the only newspaper in Mongolia that is typeset and printed in the Mongolian script, whereas the other national newspapers are all set in Cyrillic.

It is hoped that with the President’s support for the Mongolian script, the readership of Khumuun Bichig will only increase, and that this newspaper continues to be the leading newspaper in and on Mongolian writing.

Firmin Didot’s Mongolian fount

The punches of the first European metal printing type for the traditional Mongolian script were cut by the Parisian punchcutter, typefounder and printer Firmin Didot  (1764 – 1836), second son of François Ambroise Didot l’aîné (1730–1804). [1]

The manufacture of the typeface was requested by the French orientalist Louis-Mathieu Langlès (1763–1824), to print the Mongolian characters in the second edition of his lexicographical work on the Alphabet Tartare-Mantchou in 1787. Over the years, Langlès had collected a large library, known for its Eastern works, and was acquainted with the fine printing work of the Didot family. His collection also included “sheets of works, more or less advanced in printing”. [2] Lyrus Redding, a British writer who published his encounters with Langlés of 1816, believed these extraordinary and richly produced historical and military works, were executed primarily by Didot. [3].

Firmin Didot presumably learned the craft of cutting punches from Pierre-Louis Wafflard, the punchcutter in his father’s printing office, which Firmin succeeded to in 1789. A set of original punches of the caractères mandjous –as this type was referred to–  are preserved in the archives of the Imprimerie Nationale in Paris. The type was cast on 15 Didot point. [4]

[1] It is not certain whether other metal founts were produced in Asia earlier than Firmin Didot’s typeface.

[2] Redding, Lyrus. 1867. Personal reminiscences of eminent men. Volume 1: p 292

[3] Langlès also wrote works on Indian and Persian literature and culture.

[4] The Cabinet des poinçons of the Imprimerie Nationale in Paris also contained punches for two other Mongolian typefaces, amongst various other non-Latin founts. These were Mandjou Corps 9, cut by Firmin Didot in 1806, and Mandjou Corps 19, cut under Baron Shilling de Canstadt in St Petersburg in 1822. In 1963, the Parisian collection comprised 355 Mongolian punches and 14 woodcuts. [Also other punches for Mongolian and Uighur characters are preserved in the archives of the Imprimerie Nationale. These punches were cut by Renard in 1807, as mentioned in Le cabinet des poinçons (1963). Paul-Marie Grinevald writes in Les caractères de l’Imprimerie Nationale (1990, p 305) that their collection also preserves the punches for a fount called syro-ouïgour, which was cut in 1806 by Fouquet. These will be examined in greater depth at a later stage in the project.]